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Study on the Utilization of Portable Hand-Held XRF ...

Study on the Utilization of Portable Hand-Held XRF Spectroscopy as a Screening Tool for Rare Earth Elements in Coal and Coal Waste Products Document No: 114-910178X-100-REP-R001-01 It has been establishedthat REE concentrations reported by the laboratory often do not match those reported by portable XRF units.

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Review of rare earth element concentrations in oil shales ...

Retorting Green River oil shales led to a slight enrichment of rare earth elements due to removal of organic matter. When concentrations in spent and leached samples were normalized to an original rock basis, concentrations were comparable to those of the raw shale, indicating that rare earth elements are conserved in processed oil shales.

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Rare-Earth Elements - USGS

Rare-Earth Elements. By Bradley S. Van Gosen, Philip L. Verplanck, Robert R. Seal II, Keith R. Long, and Joseph Gambogi Chapter O of. Critical Mineral Resources of the United States—Economic and

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Rare-earth element - Wikipedia

In geochemistry, rare-earth elements are typically presented in normalized "spider" diagrams, in which concentration of rare-earth elements are normalized to a reference standard and are then expressed as the logarithm to the base 10 of the value.

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Using Rare Earth Elements to Model Silicate Melting and ...

Using Rare Earth Elements to Model Silicate Melting and Crystallization The Rare Earth Elements (REE) The lanthanide series is formed by filling of 4f orbitals, and its constituents are commonly termed the rare earth elements (REE). The common valence state is +3 for all REE over a wide range of oxygen fugacity; Ce+4 can occur in highly oxidized

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Geology of Rare Earth Deposits

• Stephen Castor, Rare Earth Deposits of North America, Resource Geology V58, 337-347. • Rozelle, P.L.,et al., 2016, A Study on Removal of Rare Earth Elements from U.S. Coal Byproducts by Ion Exchange, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions E, V3, 6 -17. • Foley and Ayuso, 2015, REE enrichment in granite -derived regolith deposits

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Chemical composition of Earth's primitive mantle and its ...

[1] We present a new statistical method to construct a model for the chemical composition of Earth's primitive mantle along with its variance. Earth's primitive mantle is located on the melting trend exhibited by the global compilation of mantle peridotites, using cosmochemical constraints on the relative abundances of refractory lithophile ...

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Rare earth elements and yttrium in geothermal fluids

Rare earth elements and yttrium in geothermal fluids Abstract The series of rare earth elements and yttrium (REY) is a useful tool in tracing the origin of fluids, which is fundamental in understanding any fluid-rock system. The suite of REY enables to study the …

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Plotting Programs for Rare Earth Elements, Spider …

Plotting Programs for Rare Earth Elements, Spider Diagrams, and Ternary Diagrams by - Bruggman Menlo Park, California Open-File Report 88-9 This report is preliminary and has not been reviewed for conformity with U.S. Geological Survey editorial standards (and stratigraphic nomenclature)

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Normalized Rare Earth Elements in Water, Sediments, and ...

The concentrations of the rare earth elements (REE) in surface waters and sediments, when normalized on an element-by-element basis to one of several rock standards and plotted versus atomic number, yield curves that reveal their partitioning between different sediment fractions and the sources of those fractions, for example, between terrestrial-derived lithogenous debris and seawater-derived ...

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Rare Earth Mineralization of Southern Clark County, Nevada

Chondrite normalized rare earth diagram for Thor and Mountain Pass ..... 25 . 1 ABSTRACT Rare earth mineralization was first reported in the New York Mountains of southern Nevada and eastern California by Volborth (1962), 30 kilometers to the east of the rare earth carbonatite com- …

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A novel nuclear forensic tool involving deposit type ...

forensic analysis. Rare earth element (REE) distributions within uranium ores are well-established forensic indicators, but quantifying and correlating trace element signatures for U ores to known deposits has thus far involved intricate statistical analyses. This study reports average chondrite normalized (CN)-REE signatures for

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Rare earth elements - Western Washington University

Spidergrams (normalized trace element diagrams) Same idea as REE. 1. Abundance of a range of incompatible elements normalized to estimates of their abundance in primitive mantle (estimated mantle before continental crust formed, so = bulk earth) (=Wood 1979). Same as chondrite, just multiplied by a …

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Journal of Rare Earths - Elsevier

The Journal of Rare Earths reports studies on the 17 rare earth elements. It is a unique English-language learned journal that publishes works on various aspects of basic theory and applied science in the field of rare earths (RE).

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Distributions and Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from ...

Tm, Yb, and Lu). The results in T able 2 and Figure 1 show a heavy and medium rare earth enrichment ( La N /Lu N <1, La N /Sm N < 1) using rare earth concentrations normalized to the upper continental crust (UCC) . 3,7,13 The heavy and medium RE Y enrichment of the fly ash is most likely due to the feed coal and not the combustion conditions ...

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Lecture 38 - School of Ocean and Earth Science and ...

normalized abundances b. To provide a genetic link back to the primordial mantle. Note, since REE are (1) all refractory elements during condensation and (2) are not siderophiles, and (3) because the core is about a third of the mass of the Earth, estimated primitive-mantle REE concentrations are all about

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Geochemical fractions of rare earth elements in soil ...

Rare earth mine tailing dumps are environmental hazards because tailing easily leaches and erodes by water and wind. To assess the influence of mine tailing on the geochemical behavior of rare earth elements (REEs) in soil, sixty-seven surface soil samples and three soil profile samples were collected from different locations near China's largest rare earth mine tailing.

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